GIS-based assessment of groundwater vulnerability to heavy metal contamination via water quality pollution indices in urban Aligarh, India

Mohd Saalim Badar a,*, Shahrukh Alia, Daniyalb, Md Wasim Akramc, Kashif Faheemd, Saif Ullah Khana
and Izharul Haq Farooqi a
a Department of Civil Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University-202002, Aligarh, India
b Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University-202002, Aligarh, India
c Department of Geography, Aligarh Muslim University-202002, Aligarh, India
d Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding author. E-mail: GJ2868@myamu.ac.in
MSB, 0009-0004-7220-7083

The study presents an assessment of groundwater vulnerability due to heavy-metal contamination using Heavy Metal Pollution
and Contamination Index of Urban Aligarh. Globally, hazardous compounds in industrially contaminated sites are pressing and
high-priority issue. A detailed risk assessment was carried out to determine the potential health hazards linked to locations that
were recently polluted. A total of 17 groundwater samples were taken from hand-pump and 20 industrial drainage samples
were collected from selected areas of Aligarh. The concentration of heavy-metals in the collected samples analyzed were
shown on maps using ArcGIS software and interpreted for Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPIx) and Contamination Index
(CDx). These analyzed values were subsequently compared with the permissible limits established by the agencies like EPA,
WHO, and BIS. The mean concentration of heavy-metals in groundwater of different locations was observed as follows particular
sequence: Ni (1.40), Cu (0.58), Zn (0.06), Fe (0.08), Mn (0.04), Cr (0.001), Pb (0.00025) mg/l. Additionally in industrial effluent,
Cr (18.3), Ni (13.34), Mn (1.16), Cu (1.99), Pb (1.2), Fe (6.3), Zn (0.51) mg/l. According to HPIx, the analysis reveals 64.7%, of visited
areas belonged to have safe groundwater. Conversely, a smaller proportion, 35.3%, was found falling into heavy metal-polluted
Key words: Aligarh, GIS, heavy metals in groundwater, industrialization, water quality indices

• The study provides a comprehensive assessment of heavy metal contamination.
• GIS-driven vulnerability mapping is conducted in the study.
• The study includes an evaluation of real-world impact.
• The study systematically validates scientific indices for accuracy and reliability.
• The study investigates health effects resulting from heavy metal contamination.
• A comprehensive analysis of drinking water quality.

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