International Water Transfer Projects of Turkey

Dursun Yıldız Hydropolitcs Expert May 27  2014 Introduction Turkey  has developed 4 international bulk water  transport projects since last 30 years . Planning these projects ,Turkey aims to develope  cooperation with it's neighbours by  supplying drinking water .But Turkey couldn't reach his aims except for last one.  First project  was Middle East Peace Water Pipeline . İt was developed by order of  Former Prime Minister Turgut Özal.Second one was water transfer  project  with water bags to Cyprus.It was terminated after 2 years  . Third one  is Manavgat Water Supply Project that will be used domestic water supply . Fourth one is Water Pipeline  Project from Turkey to Cyprus that is  under construction now   .Turkey showed it's  aim to use water as a peace-building resource in very unstable region. This vital  water supply cooperation intention and  benefit sharing of transboundary rivers  approach of Turkey  will be more vital and understandable policy  under the effects of climate change in the near future . The Peace Water Pipeline The idea of providing fresh water from Turkey to other countries in the region was first proposed by then-Prime Minister Turgut Ozal in 1986. His “Water for Peace” project was a plan to supply water to Israel and Arab states through pipelines filled with water from southern Turkish rivers, thereby contributing to peace in the Middle East The 21 billion USD project, which was probably envisioned to be financed by the Arab Gulf States, was to provide states in the region with water from the Şeyhan and Ceyhan Rivers. Six million cubic metres of water per year were to be conveyed in pipelines to Jordan,Syria, the Palestine, and the Gulf States. The original proposal also included the participation of Israel, but some Arab states objected to this, which led to a modification: Israel was only to receive water from the pipeline after it had concluded peace talks with all states in the region. The Turkish government requested a feasibility study from Brown & Root in 1986, but a detailed report has yet to be published. Turkish sources claim that 'the Gulf countries will have to spend a total amount of 35 billion USD during the next 10 years in order to meet their increasing water demands and related infrastructure requirements', making the Peace Water Pipeline the less expensive option. adsız Neither international agencies nor individual governments have expressed interest in financing the Peace Water Pipeline project. Within Israel, the primary concern was the pipeline's route through Syrian territory. Todays situation  of the region is enough to explain about why  pipeline's route was not suitable for international agencies and  individual governments and why water cooperation  is not easy to achive. Manavgat River Project An alternative to the Peace Water Pipeline that would not rely on diplomatic relations with Syria is that of exporting Turkish water from the Manavgat River directly to Israel. It was first discussed in 1994, with underwater pipelines, floating so-called Medusa bags, and converted oil tankers all mentioned as possible methods of transportation. In 1998, the Manavgat Project began to supply tourist cities in northern Turkey with water. That same year, Turkey began exporting Soğuksu river  water to northern Cyprus in floating Medusa bags (produced by Nordic Water Supply), but only in small amounts of up to seven MCM per year. The price per cubic metre of water was set at 55 cents. The bags did not prove very reliable (or profitable) and the project was aborted after four years. After years of negotiations and setbacks, an   Israel and Turkey has reached pre agreement  regarding the Manavgat water in 2004. Fifty million cubic metres per year were to be transported to Ashkelon in large tankers for the next twenty years. While Turkey had already invested 147 million USD in storage and water treatment facilities upstream on the Manavgat, and a pipeline and offshore facilities in the Mediterranean for tankers to load the water for export, Israel had yet to construct a 13 kilometre pipeline from Ashkelon port to its national water carrier as well as a jetty at the port. These two projects were priced at over 20 million USD. An unloading facility was constructed by 2001. The deal was supposed to be effectuated by 2006, but in April of that year, the agreement was officially put on hold.  Main reason was declared as impractical to use large tankers in a period of high oil prices  . But  there were some others related with the hydropolitics of the region  and eastern mediterranean energy politcs.The project was never realized mainly  because of the ongoing regional conflicts and unstability adsız Feasibility Despite its feasibility and independence from other Middle Eastern countries, the Manavgat scheme didn't  seem to be  an  option to quench all of Israel's water problems. While the then Israeli Finance Minister Benjamin Netanyahu rejected the plan due to its high costs, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon said that 'the importance of the deal surpasses merely the water issue, and affects the strategic relationship with Turkey'. The agreed upon Manavgat program would only have covered about 3 percent of Israel's annual water needs, a fact that proves its rather symbolic function. Although the water importation from Turkey is potentially significant, the problematic aspect of this scheme is its presupposition of broad political cooperation between the states involved. Because of the political instability in the region as well as price instability in the oil prices affects to transportation cost  resulted not to supply any bulk water from Manavgat River  Project. This project will  be used  for domestic water supply  to nearby  touristical places as it is planned at the planning stage  as an alternative . Water transfer with Water Bags adsız Water transportation from Turkey to Cyprus Between 1998 and 2002, a Norway company  performed the world's first large-scale water transportation by towing bags of sizes up to 10,000 tons from Turkey to Cyprus (60 miles). The project aims to transport 7 million m3 of water from Soğuksu Stream to Lefkoşa and Gazi Magosa via the Kumköy reservoirs in Cyprus. The construction works on Soğuksu loading and Kumköy unloading installations have been completed. The system was transferred to TRNC Water Department on 12 th. 06. 2002 Water transportation operations by means of water bags, known as “normed”, were started on 25 th .07. 1998, but satisfactory results could not be obtained. Therefore, the contract of the carrier firm was terminated in 2002, and a new firm was selected. Documents for submission of tenders for transportation of water from Turkey to the TRNC by tanker are being prepared by TRNC. A Japan  company has been developing new technology in water-bag development. Extensive research and testing is continuing on the use of large bags for water transport. adsız Waterbag moored at loading terminal                Waterbag in towage Water Pipeline  Project from Turkey to Cyprus  adsızadsız In order to meet the water demand of the TRNC, another project has been developed to transfer water by pipeline from Turkey to the TRNC and engineering services for that project have been included in the investment programme of DSİ since 2002. The project involves shore and off-shore structures. The shore structures consist of construction of a dam, storage tanks, pumping stations, and transmission lines. The off-shore structures consist of manufacturing facilities and construction of a pipeline on a supported hanger at a depth of 250 m. Water will be carried from the Alaköprü Dam to be constructed on the Anamur Dragon River in Turkey through pressurized steel pipelines to the existing small Geçitköy Small Dam in TRNC. By raising the height of the Geçitköy Small Dam, it will be converted to Geçitköy Dam, the reservoir of which will be used for water storage for the purposes of water supply and irrigation. The project was approved by the Council of Ministers in  1998. The engineering and consultancy works of the project have been completed in  2012 Water Demand Cyprus is very weak in terms of water supplies. Almost the entire water demand of the island is met through underground water resources. Water quality in Cyprus is derogating since landfill areas are close to water resources and potable water blends into underground waters and water potential which is already limited is being reduced every other day.  Ministry of Forests and Water Affairs has developed numerous projects until now such as convey water with balloons to meet the water demand of TRNC which is experiencing water shortage for years. The most appropriate way to offer a long term solution for the water problem of the foster land is to convey water from Turkey to island. Within scope of this project, water to be supplied from Alaköprü Dam to be constructed in Turkey will be passed through the sea and conveyed to Geçitköy Dam to be constructed in TRNC. adsız Project The most critical point of  Water Supply Project is “sea passage”. 160 pipes with 1600 mm diameter, 500 meters of continuous length  was used for the sea passage .It will be possible to convey 75 million cubic meters of water to Cyprus with this project. This amount of water  will transfer with 80 kilometers of HDPE pipe in total that  will be laid under the mediterranean sea water by the end of this February. The projects to transfer electricity and Dragon river  water from Turkey to  Turkish Republıc of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) .The project is expected to solve the northern Cyprus’s fundamental and chronic problems of water shortage and expensive electricity. When the project is realized, TRNC will have a resource to meet the water demand for a time frame of 50 years. The Peace River project that will connect to Dragon river in Turkey  to Cyprus and  allow the transport of 75 million cubic meters of water annually from Turkey to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (KKTC). The source of the water in Turkey, the Dragon River, has an annual capacity of 700 million cubic meters (185 million gallons), about 1/10th or 75 million cubic meters of which is to be piped to the island on completion. Water from Turkey’s pipeline to the mythological island birthplace of the goddess of love Aphrodite should be seen as “an opportunity for peace” in Cyprus, Forestry and Water Works Minister Veysel Eroglu said. At a March 2011 groundbreaking ceremony for a dam related to the water pipeline project, northern Cyprus President Dervis Eroglu said, "In my view, the peace water project carries great importance for the Cyprus issue. The pipeline, though, is “not the best solution both in economic -- too expensive -- and environmental terms,” said Cypriot government environment commissioner Ioanna Panayiotou. “Water is sensitive and might get polluted during the transfer.” The first block of the construction of the undersea pipeline for the "Water Supply project" has been completed in 27 March 2014. 126 pieces of anchorage blocks will be needed to complete the construction of the undersea water pipeline.. Bring peace “We want to exploit the use of natural gas and transfer of water and electricity from Turkey to bring peace and prosperity to the island of Cyprus and foster cooperation and friendship between Turkey and Greece,” Turkish Cypriot leader Dervis Eroglu said, according to the Anatolia state news agency. adsız Cost of the Project A $450 million intergovernmental framework agreement for a giant project called the Peace River  Project was signed in July 2010. The water transfer project between Turkey and the KKTC envisages the transport of water by pipe from the Alaköprü Dam  constructed on the Dragon River in Anamur. The water will be transported to the Geçitköy Dam near Girne  in the KKTC. The project, which is envisaged to be completed by July of this year  funded by Turkey.The pipeline will provide 75 million cubic meters of water per year to Island  from southern Turkey, while the cost of the project is expected to reach around  527,000 euros (1.12 billion TL). ‘Doesn’t exist’ The pipeline “will be the first of its kind,” Akif Ozkaldi, head of Turkey’s General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, said in an interview. “Such a suspended subsea pipeline of this size doesn’t exist in the world.” Among pipeline risk-scenarios assessed were dangers from sinking vessels, quakes and tsunamis, said Ayhan Taskin, head of DSI’s drinking-water department. First designed to be 130 meters under water, final designs lowered the pipeline “to avoid submarines.” Water supply project to Cyprus will be completed in  July 2014 It is expected that Peace water pipeline project  would bring stability and peace to Cyprus Island. New Paradigm Still, water as a strategic resource in the region remains significant.If Turkey is able to contribute to regional stability by providing water, such a development would be beneficial for Turkey as well as countries in the region. Region requires more stability after big oil and gas reserves discovery After Huge gas reserves have been discovered underneath the eastern Mediterranean between Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon and Israel, a new paradigm came out in the region New hydropoltics and petropolitics of the region  put some joint and extrordinary projects  on the table that is forcing more interdependency in the region The new paradigm and hydropolitics -petropolitics has already  began to shape the future of the region.The new negotiations on Cyprus and Cyprus water pipeline will exactly  lead to joint projects in the energy sector
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