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Effect of Urbanization  on Groundwater Resources of Izmir City

  Alper Baba1  and Hamidreza Yazdani2,3 1Izmir Institute of Technology, Engineering Faculty, Izmir, Turkey, Email: 2Izmir Institute of Technology, Architecture Faculty, Izmir, Turkey 3Izmir Metropolitan Municipality, Directorate of Historic Environment and Cultural Properties, Izmir, Turkey Abstract: İzmir  is  the third  largest city  in  Turkey.  Fifty­six  percent  of  the  drinking water of  İzmir city  is  provided  from groundwater resources. Halkapınar (located on Bornova Plain) is one of the important groundwater resources areas. This regionis providing 16 % of İzmir drinking resources. The water withdraws from the Halkapınar wells is about 30 million m3 in recent years. The groundwater levels of Bornova plain are range from 1 m to 10m.  This plain had been used as agricultural lands until the 1950s, while today they have been opened for settlement. In 1965 Bornova accommodated half of its population in rural  areas  after  receiving  so  much  immigration.  It  was  inevitable  to  open  the  city­centre  to  housing  and  to  consider  the surrounding  village  areas  as  urban  areas.  By  the  year  2000,  the rural  population  had  already  been  melted  into  the  urban population. The agricultural areas in rural parts of the country will have completely disappeared in 50 years' time. Much of the surface of the plain is rendered impermeable by buildings, roads and surface coverings. Because of this covering, groundwater recharge is reduced and increases and accelerates runoff the plain. The groundwater recharge from precipitation was about 27  %  in  1925,  but  this  amount  dropped  to  13%  in  2012.    Groundwater  recharge  from  precipitation  will  be 1%  in  2030. Hydrodynamic of plain is change because of excessive urbanization.  Groundwater level of the plain still high because tall building makes a barrier for groundwater recharge points. Key words: Groundwater resources, urbanization, water quality, Izmir
  1. INTRODUCTION Mankind is the major geomorphic agent that affects the Earth’s land surfaces (Sherlock, 1922,Underwood, 2001). Over 50% of the Earth’s population now lives in cities and it is estimated that by 2025 this will increase to over 67% (Ramsey, 2003). Urbanization is the major processnow affecting the land. The development of cities inevitably increases paved surfaces and roofsand storm drains. Urbanization is an also major  geomorphic process  affecting  groundwater systems (Sharp, 2010).
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