Environmental and Hydrological Management of the Golden Horn Estuary, Istanbul
ABSTRACT
 ALPAR, B.; BURAK, S., and DOG˘ AN, E., 2005. Environmental and hydrological management of the Golden HornEstuary, Istanbul.
 Journal of Coastal Research,
 21(4), 646–654. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.The Golden Horn estuary has been one of the worst-affected coastal areas of Istanbul (Turkey) as a result of heavyand unplanned commercial and industrial activities along the shoreline, in particular, since the early 1950s. Theestuary is an internal port, heavily polluted by creek discharges conveying domestic and industrial loads. It has alsobeen affected by the implementation of ill-adapted coastal structures and upstream activities. Increased sedimentdeposition coupled with weakened water circulation has hindered the self-purification capacity of the estuary owing to its particular oceanographic features.In view of the amount of work already undertaken and valuable information already available, and on the basis of our observations related to the water mass structure and circulation of the Golden Horn, it has been demonstratedthat the estuarine waterbody is governed by the hydrodynamic conditions of the Strait of Istanbul that are dependenton atmospheric factors, water budget, and nonlinear transient variances such as temporary blocking of the lower orupper layers of flow. The primary objectives set forth are, as a first step, to understand what problems this estuaryfaces and to suggest a comprehensive management and research program in which scientists, relevant organizations,local communities, and individuals with diverse expertise could collaborate in a partnership approach to promote andensure the rational and efficient management of the Golden Horn estuarine system as a whole.
 ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS:
 Physical oceanography, water budget, water circulation, exchange fluxes, currents,Strait of Istanbul, Marmara Sea
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