Ecmel Erlat and Murat Türkeş *  ˙

a The Physical Geography Division, Department of Geography, University of Ege, Bornova – Izmir, Turkey

b The Physical Geography Division, Department of Geography, ¸Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, ¸Canakkale, Turkey

ABSTRACT:

This study examines the climatology of annual frost days, and analyses the size and behaviour of the long- term variability and trends in annual numbers of frost day at the 72 stations over Turkey from 1950 to 2010. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) The annual number of frost days has evidently decreased at most of the stations with some observed regional differences, (2) The decreasing trends are largest over the Eastern Anatolia, the Marmara regions and along the Mediterranean coastline. The meteorological stations located in the continental northeast and the easternmost parts of the Anatolian Peninsula, including Ardahan, I ˇ gdır and Van, show a negative linear trend with a rate of four days per decade, (3) As in other regions of the Earth, changes in number of frost days are very likely associated with changes in minimum air temperatures and increasing growing season lengths in Turkey, (4) The decreasing trends in number of frost days also indicated considerable decadal-scale variability. This variability is very likely attributable to the large-scale atmospheric circulation and atmospheric oscillations such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the North Sea-Caspian Pattern, (5) Consequently, the long-winter (DJFM) composites of number of frost days were examined for extreme phases of the AO index during the period 1950 – 2010 in order to assess the influence of atmospheric oscillations on year-to-year variability in number of frost days. According to the Cramer’s t test, k winter number of frost days tended to increase significantly during the high (positive) index AO phase, while they tended to decrease significantly during the low (negative) index AO phase. These relationships are statistically significant at the 1% level at the majority of stations.

KEY WORDS minimum air temperature; number of frost days; climate change and variability; Mann-Kendall test; Cramer’s

tk test; Turkey

Received 11 December 2010; Revised 17 May 2011; Accepted 21 January 2011

 

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Author

Prof .Dr. Murat Türkeş

1. Family name: Türkeş
2. First names: Murat
3. Date of birth: 23.06.1957
4. Nationality: Turkish
5. Civil status: Married
6. Education: Physical Geography and Geology (under graduate) & Climatology and Meteorology (MSc, PhD)
Institution [ Date from - Date to ] Degree(s) or Diploma(s) obtained:
İstanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and
Geography (1986-1990)
PhD in Climatology and Meteorology
Ankara University, Department of Physical
Geography and Geology (1983-1985)
MSc in Physical Geography (on Synoptic Climatology)
Ankara University, Department of Physical
Geography and Geology (1977-1981)
BS in Physical Geography and Geology
7. Present position:
Professor of Physical Geography and Geology & Climatology and Meteorology
Affiliated Faculty at the Department of Statistics
Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey
8. Previous position:
- Representative of the Professors to the Faculty Committee at the Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University
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- Full time lecturer and Professor at the Department of Geography of the Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart U niversity
- Member of the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University University Senate (Senator) on behalf of the Faculty of Sciences and Arts,
- Member of the Scientific Research Commission of the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University University on behalf of the Faculty of Sciences and
Arts,
- Head of the Department of Geography at the Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey.
9. Years within the institute: Nine years at the Department of Geography of the Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart
University, but -in the past- about 23 years for the Turkish State Meteorological Service.
10. Areas of Expertise: Physical geography and geology, climatology and meteorology; climate change and variability; statistical data and time
series analysis of climatological, meteorological, hydrological and climate-related series of observations, drought and desertification with
respect to the climate and climatic variations; forest fires climatology and meteorology; natural disasters; the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol; energy policies and environmental protection; sustainable development and climate
change.
3
11. Professional experience
Date from – Date to Location Institution Position
1 March 2013 – Ankara Affiliated Faculty at the Department of
Statistics, Middle East Technical University
(METU), Ankara, Turkey
Affiliated Professor
14 May 2004 – 31 January 2013 Çanakkale Physical Geography Division, Department of
Geography, Faculty of Sciences and Arts,
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University
- Full time lecturer and Professor
[Head of the Department
(October 2004 – February 2010)]
14 December 1981 – 11 May
2004
Ankara Turkish State Meteorological Service, (i)
Department of Weather Forecasts; (ii)
Department of Research and Data Processing
Geomorphologist and
Climatologist
12. Some Peer review journals that I have served as a referee:
- International Journal of Climatology
- Climatic Change
- Quaternary Science Reviews
- Nature
- International Journal of Global Environmental Issues
- Theoretical and Applied Climatology
- Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics
- Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica
- Global and Planetary Change
- Journal of Environmental Management
4
- Geological Bulletin of Turkey (Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni, in Turkish)
- ISRN Meteorology
- Open Atmospheric Science Journal
- Advances in Civil Engineering
- Journal of Biology and Life Sciences (BIO)
- Journal of the Aegean Geography (Ege Coğrafya Dergisi, in Turkish)
- Journal of Ecology (Ekoloji Dergisi, in Turkish)
- Journal of Climatology
- Technical Journal of Environment, Science and Technology (Çevre, Bilim ve Teknoloji Teknik Dergi, in Turkish)
- Journal of Geographical Sciences (Coğrafi Bilimler Dergisi, in Turkish)
- Ankara University Journal of Environmental Sciences (Ankara Üniversitesi Çevre Bilimleri Dergisi, in Turkish)
- Iğdır Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi
- Çukurova Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi
- Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi
- Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi